Ich konnte leider keine Quellenangaben zu diesem Zitat finden – d.h. es scheint “so” nicht in seinem Buch 1984.

George Orwell: Totalitarianism: “A society living by and for continuous warfare in which the ruling caste have ceased to have any real function but succeed in clinging to power through force and fraud.”

I was not able to verify this quote – but its a nice one.

Wikipedia’s Definition:

Interesting enough – Wikipedia says – fascist states / dictatorships are just as totalitarianism as the Soviet Union – because in those examples the corruption and dictatorship is “more obvious” then in the US / Western version of totalitarianism.

The fact is – that democracy does not go well with capitalism – capitalism prefers to support dictatorships around the world.

Because dictatorships are better at exploiting people and the planet therefore better for business.

“Totalitarianism is a political system in which the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to regulate every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible, without any respect for human rights.[1]#

Totalitarian regimes stay in political power through such techniques as propaganda, state control of the mass media and educational system, control over the economy, political repression, capital punishment, restriction of speech, mass surveillance, and the establishment of internment or forced labour camps.

A distinctive feature of totalitarian governments is an “elaborate ideology, a set of ideas that gives meaning and direction to the whole society”,[2] often involving a one-party state, a dictator and a personality cult.

The concept of totalitarianism was first developed in the 1920s by the Weimar German jurist, and later Nazi academic, Carl Schmitt, and Italian fascists.

Schmitt used the term, Totalstaat, in his influential work on the legal basis of an all-powerful state, The Concept of the Political (1927).[3]

The concept became prominent in Western political discourse as a concept that highlights similarities between Fascist states and the Soviet Union.”[4][5][6][7][8]

src: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Totalitarianism

Education:

Eric was sent as a day-boy to a convent school in Henley-on-Thames, which Marjorie also attended.

It was a Roman Catholic convent run by French Ursuline nuns, who had been exiled from France after religious education was banned in 1903.[15]

His mother wanted him to have a public school education, but his family could not afford the fees, and he needed to earn a scholarship.

Ida Blair’s brother Charles Limouzin recommended St Cyprian’s School, Eastbourne, East Sussex.[8]

Limouzin, who was a proficient golfer, knew of the school and its headmaster through the Royal Eastbourne Golf Club, where he won several competitions in 1903 and 1904.[16]

The headmaster undertook to help Blair to win a scholarship, and made a private financial arrangement that allowed Blair’s parents to pay only half the normal fees.

In September 1911 Eric arrived at St Cyprian’s.

He boarded at the school for the next five years, returning home only for school holidays.

He knew nothing of the reduced fees, although he “soon recognised that he was from a poorer home”.[17]

Blair hated the school[18] and many years later wrote an essay “Such, Such Were the Joys“, published posthumously, based on his time there.

At St. Cyprian’s, Blair first met Cyril Connolly, who became a writer.

Many years later, as the editor of Horizon, Connolly published several of Orwell’s essays.

St Cyprian’s was, according to him, a “world of force and fraud and secrecy” (src)

Unfortunately from my own experience i have to say – “Upper-Class” Boarding Schools in England the perfect place for corruption to grow. Why work hard for exams if you can pay your certificate?

It is catastrophic. The Chinese students completely refused to speak or learn English and eat the (unfortunately really) bad food.

They did their own shopping and cooking EVERY SINGLE DAY – despite the fact – that it was forbidden – because the old building could have burned down 😀

Bibliography: Veröffentlichungen:

Title Date Collected Notes
“About It and About” 12 August 1939 CW XI Review of Foreign Correspondent: Twelve British Journalists and In the Margins of History by L. B. Namier and Europe Going, Going, Gone! by Count Ferdinand von Czernin, published in Time and Tide[11]
“The Adventure of the Lost Meat-card” 3 June 1918 CW X Short story published unsigned in The Election Times No. 4, pp. 43–46.[12][note 1]
“After Twelve” 1 April 1920 CW X Poem published unsigned in College Days No. 4, p. 104, possibly by Orwell[13][note 2][note 3]
All Art Is Propaganda: Critical Essays 13 October 2008 Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt in New York City, edited by George Packer. Companion volume to Facing Unpleasant Facts: Narrative Essays
“All Change Is Here” 7 May 1944 OY Published in The Observer
“Allies Facing Food Crisis in Germany” 15 April 1945 OY Published in The Observer
“An American Critic” 10 May 1942 OY Published in The Observer
Animal Farm 17 August 1945 CN, CW VIII, OP Published by Secker and Warburg in London on and Harcourt Brace Jovanovich in New York City on 26 August 1946. The original printing is entitled Animal Farm: A Fairy Story.
“Anti-Semitism in Britain” April 1945 SSWtJ, EYE, ColE, CEJL III, EL Published in Contemporary Jewish Record
“Are Books Too Dear?” 1 June 1944 EL Published in Manchester Evening News
“A.R.D – After rooms – JANNEY” 1 April 1920 CW X Mock advertisement published unsigned in College Days No. 4, p. 103. Written together with Denys King-Farlow.[13][14][note 3]
The Art of Donald McGill September 1941 AAIP, CEJL II, CoE, ColE, CrE, DotEM, EL, OD Published in Horizon
Arthur Koestler 11 September 1944 CrE, ColE, CEJL III, EL Unpublished typescript
As I Please” #1 3 December 1943 CEJL III, EL, FUF Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #2 10 December 1943 EL, FUF Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #3 17 December 1943 CEJL III, EL, FUF Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #4 24 December 1943 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #5 31 December 1943 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #6 7 January 1944 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #7 14 January 1944 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #8 21 January 1944 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #9 28 January 1944 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #10 4 February 1944 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #11 11 February 1944 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #12 18 February 1944 EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #13 25 February 1944 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #14 3 March 1944 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #15 10 March 1944 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #16 17 March 1944 CEJL III, EL, FUF Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #17 24 March 1944 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #18 31 March 1944 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #19 7 April 1944 EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #20 14 April 1944 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #21 21 April 1944 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #22 28 April 1944 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #23 5 May 1944 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #24 12 May 1944 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #25 19 May 1944 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #26 26 May 1944 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #27 2 June 1944 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #28 9 June 1944 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #29 16 June 1944 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #30 23 June 1944 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #31 30 June 1944 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #32 7 July 1944 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #33 14 July 1944 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #34 21 July 1944 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #35 28 July 1944 CEJL III, EL, OD (excerpt) Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #36 4 August 1944 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #37 11 August 1944 CEJL III, EL, OE (excerpt) Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #38 18 August 1944 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #39 25 August 1944 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #40 1 September 1944 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #41 8 September 1944 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #42 15 September 1944 CEJL III, EL, OS (excerpt) Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #43 6 October 1944 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #44 13 October 1944 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #45 20 October 1944 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #46 27 October 1944 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #47 3 November 1944 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #48 17 November 1944 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #49 24 November 1944 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #50 1 December 1944 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #51 8 December 1944 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #52 29 December 1944 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #53 5 January 1945 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #54 12 January 1945 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #55 19 January 1945 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #56 26 January 1945 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #57 2 February 1945 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #58 9 February 1945 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #59 16 February 1945 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #60 8 November 1946 CEJL IV, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #61 15 November 1946 CEJL IV, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #62 22 November 1946 CEJL IV, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #63 29 November 1946 CEJL IV, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #64 6 December 1946 CEJL IV, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #65 13 December 1946 CEJL IV, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #66 20 December 1946 CEJL IV, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #67 27 December 1946 CEJL IV, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #68 3 January 1947 CEJL IV, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #69 17 January 1947 CEJL IV, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #70 24 January 1947 CEJL IV, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #71 31 January 1947 CEJL IV, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #72 7 February 1947 CEJL IV, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #73 14 February 1947 CEJL IV, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #74 21 February 1947 EL Published in Manchester Evening News for Tribune
“As I Please” #75A 27 February 1947 EL Published in Daily Herald for Tribune
“As I Please” #75B 28 February 1947 EL Published in Manchester Evening News for Tribune
“As I Please” #76 7 March 1947 CEJL IV, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #77 14 March 1947 CEJL IV, EL, OE (excerpt) Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #78 21 March 1947 EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #79 28 March 1947 CEJL IV, EL Published in Tribune
“As I Please” #80 4 April 1947 EL Published in Tribune
“As One Non-Combatant to Another” 18 June 1943 CEJL II Poem written in response to Alex Comfort‘s Letter to an American Visitor (published under the pseudonym “Obadiah Hornbrooke” in Tribune 9 June 1943), published in Tribune
“At School and on Holiday” 7 December 1940 Published in Time and Tide
The Atlantic Islands by Kenneth Williamson 29 February 1948 EL, OY Book review published in The Observer
“Authentic Socialism” 16 June 1938 CEJL I, CW XI Review of The Freedom of the Streets by Jack Common, published in New English Weekly[15]
unpublished response to Authors Take Sides on the Spanish War 3 August 1937 CW XI, EL, OS Unpublished response, written 3–6 August 1937, to a questionnaire sent out by Nancy Cunard and the Left Review for the pamphlet Authors Take Sides on the Spanish War.[16]
“Autobiographical Note” 17 April 1940 CEJL II Written for Stanley Kunitz and Howard Haycraft’s Twentieth Century Authors, published by W. H. Wilson & Co. in 1942
Awake! Young Men of England 2 October 1914 CW X Poem published in The Henley and South Oxfordshire Standard Vol. XXV, No. 1455, p. 8, signed “Eric Blair”[12]
“Back to the Land” 3 September 1944 OY Published in The Observer
“Back to the Twenties” 21 October 1937 CW XI Review of the magazine The Booster (September 1937) published in New English Weekly[17]
“Background of French Morocco” 20 November 1942 Published in Tribune
“Background to Travel” 25 September 1937 CEJL I, CW XI Review of Journey to Turkistan by Eric Teichman, published in Time and Tide[18]
“Bad Climates Are Best” 2 February 1946 EL Published in Evening Standard
Ballade June 1929 Written before the summer of 1929, this poem has not survived
“Banish This Uniform” 22 December 1945 EL Published in Evening Standard
Barbarians and Philistines: Democracy and the Public Schools by T. C. Worsley 14 September 1940 EL, OD Book review published in Time and Tide
“Bare Christmas for the Children” 1 December 1945 EL Published in Evening Standard
Bastard Death by Michael Fraenkel and Fast One by Paul Cain 23 April 1936 CEJL I Book review published in New English Weekly
“Battle Ground” 16 December 1945 OY Published in The Observer
“Bavarian Peasants Ignore The War” 22 April 1945 OY Published in The Observer
“The Bayonet in War” 21 March 1941 Published in The Spectator
BBC Internal Memorandum 15 October 1942 CEJL II Memo written by Orwell for his boss at BBC Eastern Service outlining his demands for working on-air
“Beggars in London” 12 January 1929 Published in French in Progrès Civique
“Behind the Ranges” 11 June 1944 OY Published in The Observer
“Benefit of Clergy: Some Notes on Salvador Dali” 1944 CrE, ColE, DotEM, CEJL III, EL, AAIP, STCM Book review of Salvador Dalí‘s Life intended for The Saturday Book volume four.
Bernard Shaw 22 January 1943 WB Broadcast by the BBC
“The Best Novels of 1949: Some Personal Choices” 1 January 1950 LO, OY A list of authors’ favourite books of 1949 published in The Observer
Betrayal of the Left: An Examination & Refutation of Communist Policy from October 1939 to January 1941 with Suggestions for an Alternative and an Epilogue on Political Morality 3 March 1941 Published by the Left Book Club, edited by Victor Gollancz, with Orwell’s “Fascism and Democracy” and “Patriots and Revolutionaries”
Black Spring by Henry Miller, A Passage to India by E. M. Forster, Death of a Hero by Richard Aldington, The Jungle by Upton Sinclair, A Hind Let Loose by Charles Edward Montague, and A Safety Match by Ian Hay 24 September 1936 CEJL I Book review published in New English Weekly
“The Book Racket” September 1939 CW XI Review of Best-Sellers by George Stevens, Stanley Unwin and Frank Swinnerton, published in The Adelphi[11]
“Books and the People: Money and Virtue” 10 November 1944 CEJL III, CW XVI Review of The Vicar of Wakefield by Oliver Goldsmith, published in Tribune No. 410, pp. 15–16[19]
Books v. Cigarettes 8 February 1946 SaE, CEJL IV, EL Published in Tribune
Bookshop Memories November 1936 CEJL I, EL, FUF Published in Fortnightly Review
Boys’ Weeklies 11 March 1940 AAIP, CEJL I, CoE, CrE, ColE, ItW, OD, SE Published in Horizon in abridged form and revised for Inside the Whale and Other Essays
“Britain’s Struggle for Survival: The Labour Government After Three Years” October 1948 Published in Commentary
“British Cookery” 1946 Article with recipes commissioned by the British Council; due to rationing, it was not published
“The British Crisis” June 1942 Published in Partisan Review, June/July 1942.
“The British General Election” November 1945 Published in Commentary
“Britain’s Left-Wing Press” June 1948 EL Published in The Progressive
British Pamphleteers Volume 1: From the 16th Century the 18th Century April 1948 Published by Allan Wingate in Spring 1948, co-edited by Orwell and Reginald Reynolds with an introduction by Orwell.
“British Rations and the Submarine War” 22 January 1942 WB Broadcast by the BBC
The British Way in Warfare by Basil Liddell Hart 21 November 1942 CEJL II Book review published in New Statesman and Nation
The Brothers Karamazov and Crime and Punishment by Fyodor Dostoevsky, translated by Constance Garnett 7 October 1945 EL, OY Published in The Observer
“Burma” December 1928 OP Published in French in Progrès Civique, between December 1928 and May 1929
“Burma” 22 April 1943 Published in Tribune
“Burma Roads” 1 October 1944 OY Published in The Observer
Burmese Days 25 October 1935 CN, CW II, OR (excerpts) Published by HarperCollins in New York City on 25 October 1935 and by Victor Gollancz, Ltd. in London on 24 June 1936. This is the only Orwell book to be initially published outside of the United Kingdom.
Burmese Interlude by C. V. Warren 12 January 1938 CW XI Anonymous book review published in The Listener[20][note 4]
“Burnham’s View of the Contemporary World Struggle” 29 March 1947 CEJL IV, EL Published in The New Leader
Burnt Norton, The Dry Salvages, and East Coker by T. S. Eliot October 1942 CEJL II Poetry reviews published in Poetry London, October/November 1942
“But Are We Really Ruder? No” 26 January 1946 EL Published as a Saturday Essay in Evening Standard
“By-Words” 16 November 1940 Published in New Statesman and Nation
Byron and the Need of Fatality by Charles du Bos, translated from the French by Ethel Colburn Mayne September 1932 CEJL I Book review published in Adelphi, signed “Eric Blair”
“Caesarean Section in Spain” March 1939 CW XI, OS Article published in The Highway: A Review of Adult Education and the Journal of the Workers’ Educational Association Vol. 31, pp. 145–147[22]
The Calf of Paper by Sholem Asch and Midnight by Julien Green 12 November 1936 CEJL I Book review published in New English Weekly
Caliban Shrieks by Jack Hilton May 1935 CEJL I, EL, OD Book review published in The Adelphi, first writing credited to “George Orwell”
“Can Socialists Be Happy?” 24 December 1943 EL, AAIP Published in Tribune under the authorship of “John Freeman” (possibly in reference to British politician of the same name) and later attributed to Orwell by Davison.[note 5]
“The Case for the Open Fire” 8 December 1945 EL, FUF Published in Evening Standard
“Carlyle” March 1931 CEJL I Review of The Two Carlyles by Osbert Burdett, published in The Adelphi, signed “Eric Blair”
“Catastrophic Gradualism” November 1943 CEJL IV, EL Published in Common Wealth Review
“A Catholic Confronts Communism” 27 January 1939 CEJL I, CW XI, EL, OP Review of Communism and Man by F. J. Sheed published in Peace News[25]
“Censorship in England” 6 October 1928 Published in French as “La censure en angleterre” in Monde
Charles Dickens 11 March 1940 ItW, CrE, CoE, ColE, DotEM, CEJL I, EL, AAIP First published in Inside the Whale and Other Essays
Charles Reade 17 August 1940 CEJL II Published in New Statesman and Nation
“Charles the Great” 2 September 1945 OY Published in The Observer
“The Children Who Cannot Be Billeted” 13 August 1944 OY Published in The Observer
“Chinese Miracles” 6 August 1944 OY Published in The Observer
“Chosen People” 30 January 1944 OY Published in The Observer
“The Christian Reformers” 7 February 1946 EL Published as part one of a series (with “What Is Socialism?”, “The Intellectual Revolt”, and “Pacifism and Progress”) in Manchester Evening News
The Civil War in Spain by Frank Jellinek 8 July 1938 CEJL I, CW XI, EL, OS Book review published in The New Leader[26][note 6], with a correction published on 13 January 1939.[27]
“Classics Reviewed: The Martyrdom of Man 15 March 1946 CEJL IV, EL Book review of the book by William Winwood Reade published in Tribune
A Clergyman’s Daughter 11 March 1935 CN, CW III, OR (excerpts) Published by Victor Gollancz, Ltd in London on 11 March 1935 and in New York City on 17 August 1936.
“Clerical Party May Re-emerge in France: Educational Controversy” 11 March 1945 OY Published in The Observer
“Clink” August 1932 CEJL I, EL, FUF, OD Unpublished
A Coat of Many Colours: Occasional Essays by Herbert Reade by Herbert Taylor Reade December 1945 CEJL IV Published in Poetry Quarterly, Winter 1945
Collected Essays 1961 Published by Secker and Warburg in London
The Collected Essays, Journalism and Letters of George Orwell – Volume 1: An Age Like This 1920–1940 1968 Published by Harcourt, Brace & World in New York City, later republished by Mariner Books in 1971, David R Godine in 2000, and Penguin UK in 2003
The Collected Essays, Journalism and Letters of George Orwell – Volume 2: My Country Right or Left 1940–1943 1968 Published by Harcourt, Brace & World in New York City, later republished by Mariner Books in 1971, David R Godine in 2000, and Penguin UK in 2003
The Collected Essays, Journalism and Letters of George Orwell – Volume 3: As I Please, 1943–1945 1968 Published by Harcourt, Brace & World in New York City, later republished by Mariner Books in 1971, David R Godine in 2000, and Penguin UK in 2003
The Collected Essays, Journalism and Letters of George Orwell – Volume 4: In Front of Your Nose, 1945–1950 1968 Published by Harcourt, Brace & World in New York City, later republished by Mariner Books in 1971, David R Godine in 2000, and Penguin UK in 2003
Collected Poems of W. H. Davies by W. H. Davies 19 December 1943 CEJL III, EL, OY Book review published in The Observer
A Collection of Essays by George Orwell 1954 Published by Doubleday and Company in Garden City in 1954
Coming Up for Air 12 June 1939 CN, CW VI, OR (excerpts) Published by Victor Gollancz, Ltd in London on 12 June 1939[28]
“Common Lodging Houses” 3 September 1932 CEJL I, EL, OD Published in The New Statesman and Nation, signed “Eric Blair”
The Complete Works of George Orwell – Volume 10: A Kind of Compulsion: 1903–1936 1986 Published by Secker and Warburg in 1986, later reprinted in 1999; volumes one to nine are reprintings of Orwell’s non-fiction books and novels
The Complete Works of George Orwell – Volume 11: Facing Unpleasant Facts: 1937–1939 1986 Published by Secker and Warburg in 1986, later reprinted in 1999; volumes one to nine are reprintings of Orwell’s non-fiction books and novels
The Complete Works of George Orwell – Volume 12: A Patriot After All: 1940–1941 1986 Published by Secker and Warburg in 1986, later reprinted in 1999; volumes one to nine are reprintings of Orwell’s non-fiction books and novels
The Complete Works of George Orwell – Volume 13: All Propaganda Is Lies: 1941–1942 1986 Published by Secker and Warburg in 1986, later reprinted in 1999; volumes one to nine are reprintings of Orwell’s non-fiction books and novels
The Complete Works of George Orwell – Volume 14: Keeping Our Little Corner Clean: 1942–1943 1986 Published by Secker and Warburg in 1986, later reprinted in 1999; volumes one to nine are reprintings of Orwell’s non-fiction books and novels
The Complete Works of George Orwell – Volume 15: Two Wasted Years: 1943 1986 Published by Secker and Warburg in 1986, later reprinted in 1999; volumes one to nine are reprintings of Orwell’s non-fiction books and novels
The Complete Works of George Orwell – Volume 16: I Have Tried to Tell the Truth: 1943–1944 1986 Published by Secker and Warburg in 1986, later reprinted in 1999; volumes one to nine are reprintings of Orwell’s non-fiction books and novels
The Complete Works of George Orwell – Volume 17: I Belong to the Left: 1945 1986 Published by Secker and Warburg in 1986, later reprinted in 1999; volumes one to nine are reprintings of Orwell’s non-fiction books and novels
The Complete Works of George Orwell – Volume 18: Smothered Under Journalism: 1946 1986 Published by Secker and Warburg in 1986, later reprinted in 1999; volumes one to nine are reprintings of Orwell’s non-fiction books and novels
The Complete Works of George Orwell – Volume 19: It Is What I Think: 1947–1948 1986 Published by Secker and Warburg in 1986, later reprinted in 1999; volumes one to nine are reprintings of Orwell’s non-fiction books and novels
The Complete Works of George Orwell – Volume 20: Our Job Is to Make Life Worth Living: 1949–1950 1986 Published by Secker and Warburg in 1986, later reprinted in 1999; volumes one to nine are reprintings of Orwell’s non-fiction books and novels
“Concerning the Quartier Montparnasse” June 1929 A series of articles published in French as “Ayant toujours trait au Quartier Montparnasse“, which were written before the summer of 1929 and have not survived
Confessions of a Book Reviewer 3 May 1946 SaE, CEJL IV, EL, AAIP Published in Tribune
Conrad‘s Place and Rank in English Letters” 10 April 1949 CEJL IV Published in Wiadomosci
“A Controversy: Agate: Orwell” 21 December 1944 CEJL III Orwell’s review of Noblesse Oblige—Another Letter to My Son by Osbert Sitwell was published in Manchester Evening News on 30 November 1944, with James Agate‘s response to Orwell published on 21 December 1944 and this response by Orwell appearing in the same issue.
The Cosmological Eye by Henry Miller 22 February 1946 CEJL IV Book review published in Tribune
“The Cost of Letters” September 1946 CEJL IV, EL Published in Horizon, also entitled “Questionnaire: The Cost of Letters”
“The Cost of Radio Programmes” 1 February 1946 Published in Tribune
“Countryman’s World” 23 March 1944 CW XVI, EL Review of The Way of a Countryman by William Beach Thomas, published in The Manchester Evening News No. 23,354, p. 2[29]
Crainquebille by Anatole France 11 August 1943 WB Adaptation of France’s play as a radio drama by Orwell, broadcast by the BBC
“Creating Order out of Cologne Chaos” 25 March 1945 OY Published in The Observer
Cricket Country by Edmund Blunden 20 April 1944 CEJL III, EL Book review published in Manchester Evening News
“The Cricket Enthusiast” 9 July 1920 CW X Short story published unsigned in College Days No. 5, p. 150[30][31][note 3]
“A Critic Views a Statesman” 14 May 1949 Published in New Leader
Critical Essays 14 February 1946 Published by Secker and Warburg in London and as Dickens, Dali and Others: Studies in Popular Culture by Reynal and Hitchcock in April 1946.
“Culture and Democracy” 15 May 1942 Published in Victory or Vested Interest?, made up of “Fascism and Democracy” and “Patriots and Revolutionaries”
“Culture and the Classes” 28 November 1948 OY Published in The Observer
“Current Literature: Books in General” 17 August 1940 Published in New Statesman and Nation
“Cycle of Cathay 11 November 1945 OY Published in The Observer
D. H. Lawrence‘s Short Stories” 16 November 1945 Published in Tribune
“Danger of Separate Occupation Zones” 20 May 1945 OY Published in The Observer
“In the Darlan Country” 29 November 1942 OY Published in The Observer
“A Day in the Life of a Tramp” 5 January 1929 OE Published in French in Progrès Civique
De Gaulle Intends to Keep Indo-China 18 March 1945 OY Published in The Observer
“Dear Doktor Goebbels – Your British Friends Are Feeding Fine!” 23 July 1941 EL, FUF Published in Daily Express
Decline of the English Murder 15 February 1946 CEJL IV, DotEM, EL, OE, OR, SaE Published in Tribune
Decline of the English Murder and Other Essays 1965 Published by Penguin Group in London
“The Defence of Freedom” 11 October 1948 OY Published in The Observer
“Democracy in the British Army” September 1939 CEJL I, CW XI, EL, OD Article published in The Left Forum[32]
The Democrat at the Supper Table by Colm Brogan 10 February 1946 CEJL IV, OY Book review published in The Observer
“Democrats and Dictators” 17 February 1940 Published in Time and Tide
“Dear Friend: Allow Me for a Little While” c. 1922–1927 CW X Poem, handwritten manuscript, 1f[33][34][note 7]
Der Führer by Conred Heiden 4 January 1945 EL Book review published in Manchester Evening News
“Desert and Islands” 21 November 1936 Published in Time and Tide
The Development of William Butler Yeats by V. K. Narayana Menon January 1943 EL Book review published in Horizon
Diaries 10 May 2011 Edited by Peter Davison, published in London by Harvill Secker
“Do Our Colonies Pay?” 8 March 1946 Published in Tribune
Down and Out in Paris and London 9 January 1933 CW I, OD, OR (excerpts) Published by Victor Gollancz, Ltd in London on 9 January 1933 and in the United States on 30 June 1933.
“Down the Mine” 10 June 1937 EYE, SE Reprint of a short section of chapter two of The Road to Wigan Pier in The News Chronicle[36]
“Down Under” 14 March 1948 OY Published in The Observer
“A Dressed Man and a Naked Man” October 1933 CEJL I, OD Poem published in The Adelphi, signed “Eric Blair”
Drums Under the Windows by Seán O’Casey 28 October 1945 CEJL IV, EL, OY Book review published in The Observer
The Edge of the Abyss by Alfred Noyes 27 February 1944 EL, OY Book review published in The Observer
Editorial May 1946 CEJL IV Published in Polemic number three
Edmund Blunden 8 January 1943 WB An introduction to a talk by Blunden broadcast over the BBC
“The Eight Years of War: Spanish Memories” 16 July 1944 OY Published in The Observer
The Emperor’s New Clothes by Hans Christian Andersen 18 November 1943 WB Adaptation of Andersen’s short story as a radio drama by Orwell, broadcast by the BBC
“The End of Henry Miller” 4 December 1942 Published in Tribune
“England with the Knobs Off” July 1940 Published in The Adelphi
England Your England 19 February 1941 SSWtJ, EYE, CoE, OR, SE, FUF First published in The Lion and the Unicorn: Socialism and the English Genius
England Your England and Other Essays 1953 Published by Secker and Warburg in London
“The English Civil War” 24 August 1940 Published in New Statesman and Nation
The English People March 1944 CEJL III, EL, OE Commissioned as a part of the series “Britain in Pictures” and written around spring of 1944, this essay was not published by HarperCollins as a pamphlet until 1947 due to paper rationing in World War II
“English Poetry Since 1900” 13 June 1943 WB Broadcast by the BBC
English Ways by Jack Hilton; with an Introduction by John Middleton Murry and Photographs by J. Dixon Scott July 1940 EL, OD Book review published in The Adelphi
“English Writing in Total War” 14 July 1941 Published in The New Republic
Entre Chien et Loup 13 April 1940 Published in Time and Tide
“Escape or Escapeism?” 30 November 1945 Published in Tribune
Essays 15 October 2002 Published by Alfred A. Knopf in New York City and Toronto as a part of Everyman’s Library, edited by John Carey
Esther Waters by George Moore, Our Mr Wrenn by Sinclair Lewis, Dr Serocold by Helen Ashton, The Owls’ House by Crosbie Garstin, Hangman’s House by Brian Oswald Donn-Byrne, Odd Craft by W. W. Jacobs, Naval Occasions by Bartimeus, My Man Jeeves by P. G. Wodehouse, and Autobiography volumes one and two by Margot Asquith 5 May 1936 CEJL I Book review of several titles published by Penguin Group, published in New English Weekly
“Eton Masters’ Strike” 29 November 1919 CW X Short story published unsigned in College Days No. 3, p. 90, possibly by Orwell[13][note 3]
Evelyn Waugh April 1949 CEJL IV, EL Unpublished and unfinished essay written c. April 1949
“Eye-Witness in Barcelona” 11 August 1937 CW XI, OS Article published in Controversy: The Socialist Forum[37]
“Eyes Left, Dress!” 17 February 1938 CEJL I, CW XI, OP Review of Workers’ Front by Fenner Brockway, published in The New English Weekly[38]
“Excursions in Autobiography” 6 November 1937 CW XI Review of Broken Water: An Autobiographical Excursion by James Hanley and I Wanted Wings by Beirne Lay, Jr., published in Time and Tide[39]
“Experientia Docet” 28 August 1937 CEJL I, CW XI Review of The Men I Killed by Brigadier-General F. P. Crozier, published in The New Statesman and Nation[40]
Facing Unpleasant Facts: Narrative Essays 13 October 2008 Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt in New York City, edited by George Packer. Companion volume to All Art Is Propaganda: Critical Essays
“The Faith of Thomas Mann 10 September 1943 Published in Tribune
Faith, Reason and Civilisation by Harold Laski 13 March 1944 EL Rejected book review submitted to Manchester Evening News
“A Farthing Newspaper” 29 December 1928 CEJL I, EL, OD Published in G. K.’s Weekly, signed “Eric A. Blair”
“Fascism and Democracy” 3 March 1941 Published in Betrayal of the Left by Victor Gollancz Ltd
The Fate of the Middle Classes by Alec Brown 30 April 1936 CW X, EL Book review published in The New English Weekly[note 8]
The Fate of the Middle Classes by Alec Brown May 1936 CW X, OP Book review published in The Adelphi[note 8]
“Fiction and Life” 9 November 1940 Published in Time and Tide
“Films” October 1940 Published in Time and Tide from October 1940 through August 1941
“Five Travellers” 12 September 1936 Published in Time and Tide
“For Ever Eton” 1 August 1948 OY Published in The Observer
“Foreign Policies” 5 April 1946 Published in Tribune
Forward to The End of the ‘Old School Tie’ 1941 OD By T. C. Worsley, published by Secker and Warburg
The Fox by Ignazio Silone 9 September 1943 WB Adaptation of Silone’s short story as a radio drama by Orwell, broadcast by the BBC
“France’s Interest in the War Dwindles” 6 May 1945 OY Published in The Observer
“Franco Spain” 21 December 1940 Published in Time and Tide
“Franz Borkenau on the Communist International” 22 September 1938 CEJL I, CW XI, OP Review of The Communist International by Franz Borkenau, published in New English Weekly[42]
“Freed Politicians Return to Paris” 13 May 1945 OY Published in The Observer
“Freedom and Happiness” 4 January 1946 CEJL IV Published in Tribune, a review of Yevgeny Zamyatin‘s We
“Free Will” 3 June 1918 CW X One-act play or dramatic sketch published unsigned in The Election Times No. 4, pp. 25–27. Reprinted in College Days No. 5 (9 July 1920) p. 129, also unsigned.[12][note 1][note 3]
Freedom Defence Committee 18 September 1948 CEJL IV Published in Socialist Leader
“Freedom of the Park” 7 December 1945 CEJL IV Published in Tribune
“The Freedom of the Press” 17 August 1945 EL An introduction to Animal Farm published in London and later in New York City on 26 August 1946
“French Farce” 8 July 1945 OY Published in The Observer
“Friendship and love” Summer 1921 CW X Orwell’s last poem to Jacintha Buddicom[43]
“From Tartary to Egypt” 15 August 1936 CW X Review of News from Tartary by Peter Fleming, The Abyssinia I Knew by General Eric Virgin translated from the Swedish by Naomi Walford, and Canoe Errant on the Nile by Major R. Raven-Hart, published in Time and Tide
“From the Notebooks of George Orwell” June 1950 Published in World Review
“The Frontiers of Art and Propaganda” 30 April 1941 CEJL II, EL Initially broadcast over BBC Overseas Service on 30 April 1941, printed in The Listener on 29 May 1941
“Funny, but Not Vulgar” 1 December 1944 CEJL III, EL Published in Leader Magazine, 28 July 1945
“Future of a Ruined Germany” 8 April 1945 OY Published in The Observer
“The Future of Socialism: IV Toward European Unity” June 1947 Published in Partisan Review, July/August 1947
Gandhi in Mayfair” September 1943 CEJL II, EL Book review of Beggar My Neighbour by Lionel Fielden published in Horizon
George Gissing May 1948 CEJL IV, EL Unpublished essay, written May–June 1948
George Orwell: A Life in Letters 10 May 2011 Edited by Peter Davison, published in London by Harvill Secker and in the United States by Penguin
“The Germans Still Doubt Our Unity” 29 April 1945 OY Published in The Observer
Glimpses and Reflections by John Galsworthy 12 March 1938 CEJL I, CW XI Book review published in New Statesman and Nation[44]
“Going Down” 14 January 1945 OY Published in The Observer
“Good Bad Books” 2 November 1945 CEJL IV, SaE, EL, AAIP Published in Tribune
“A Good ‘Middle'” October 1930 CEJL I Review of Angel Pavement by J. B. Priestley, published in The Adelphi, signed “E. A. Blair”
“Good Travellers” 2 December 1939 Published in Time and Tide
A Good Word for the Vicar of Bray 26 April 1946 SaN, SaE, OR, CEJL IV, EL, FUF, STCM Published in Tribune
The Great Dictator 21 December 1940 AAIP Film review published in Time and Tide
Great Morning by Osbert Sitwell July 1948 CEJL IV, EL Book review published in The Adelphi, July/September 1948
“The Green Flag” 28 October 1945 OY Published in The Observer
“Grounds for Dismay” 9 April 1944 OY Published in The Observer
“Guerillas” 14 December 1940 Published in New Statesman and Nation
A Hanging August 1931 CEJL I, ColE, DotEM, EL, FUF, OP, OR, SaE, WIW Published in The Adelphi, reprinted in The New Savoy in 1946, signed “Eric A. Blair”
“A Happy Vicar I Might Have Been” 1935 Poem
Havelock Ellis May 1940 Published in The Adelphi
The Heart of the Matter by Graham Greene 17 July 1948 CEJL IV, EL, AAIP Book review published in The New Yorker
“Herman Melville” March 1930 CEJL I, CW X Review of Herman Melville by Lewis Mumford, published in The New Adelphi, Vol. III, No. 3 (March–May 1930), pp. 206–208, signed “E. A. Blair”[45]
“Hidden Spain” 28 November 1943 OY Published in The Observer
“History Books” 21 September 1940 Published in New Statesman and Nation
Hitler 21 March 1940 Published in New English Weekly
“Holding Out” 14 September 1940 Published in New Statesman and Nation
Homage to Catalonia 25 April 1938 CN, CW VI, OR (excerpts), OS Published by Secker and Warburg in London on 25 April 1938 and by Harcourt, Brace and Company in New York on 15 May 1952.[46]
“Hop-Picking” 17 October 1931 CEJL I, OE Published in The New Statesman and Nation, a longer version appears in Collected Essays, Journalism and Letters I
How the Poor Die November 1946 CEJL IV, ColE, DotEM, EL, FUF, OD, OR, SaE Published in Now number six
“A Hundred Up” 13 February 1944 CEJL III, EL, OY Book review of Martin Chuzzlewit by Charles Dickens published in The Observer
“Imaginary Interview: George Orwell and Jonathan Swift” 2 November 1942 EL, WB Broadcast by BBC African Service, titled by West as “Jonathan Swift, an Imaginary Interview”
“Impenetrable Mystery” 9 June 1938 CEJL I, CW XI, EL, OP Review of Assignment in Utopia by Eugene Lyons, published in New English Weekly[47]
In a Strange Land: Essays by Eric Gill by Eric Gill 9 July 1944 EL, OY Book review published in The Observer
“In Defence of Comrade Zilliacus August 1947 CEJL IV, EL Unpublished essay intended for Tribune, August/September 1947
“In Defence of English Cooking” 15 December 1945 CEJL III, EL, FUF, STCM Published in Evening Standard
“In Defence of P. G. Wodehouse July 1945 CEJL III, ColE, CrE, EL, OD, OR, STCM Published in The Windmill number two
“In Defence of the Novel” 12 November 1936 CEJL I, EL Published in two issues of New English Weekly from 12 and 19 November 1936
“In Front of Your Nose” 22 March 1946 CEJL IV, EL, FUF Published in Tribune
“In Pursuit of Lord Acton 29 March 1946 Published in Tribune
“In the Firing Line” 2 January 1944 OY Published in The Observer
“Indian Ink” 29 October 1944 OY Published in The Observer
Inside the Whale 11 March 1940 ItW, SSWtJ, EYE, CoE, SE, ColE, CEJL I, EL, AAIP Published as part of Inside the Whale and Other Essays
Inside the Whale and Other Essays 11 March 1940 Published by Victor Gollancz Ltd on 11 March 1940. A different publication by the same name—identical to Selected Essays—was released in the United Kingdom in 1962.
“The Intellectual Revolt” 24 January 1946 EL Published as part one of a series (with “What Is Socialism?”, “The Christian Reformers”, and “Pacifism and Progress”) in Manchester Evening News
An Interlude in Spain by Charles d’Ydewalle, translated by Eric Sutton 24 December 1944 EL, OY Published in The Observer
Introduction to Love of Life and Other Stories by Jack London October 1945 CEJL IV, EL Introduction to this compilation published in the United Kingdom, October–November 1945
Introduction to The Position of Peggy Harper by Leonard Merrick December 1945 CEJL IV Introduction to an intended reprinting of the text that was never published, written in winter 1945
Introduction to the French edition of Down and Out in Paris and London 8 May 1935 CEJL I, OD Introduction to the book published as La Vache Enragée by Éditions Gallimard
“An Ironic Poem About Prostitution 1935 Poem from some time before 1936
“Is There Any Truth in Spiritualism?” 9 July 1920 CW X Monologue published in College Days No. 5, p. 140, signed “The Bishop of Borstall”[sic][30][48][note 3]
“It Looks Different from Abroad” 2 December 1946 Article published in The New Republic
Jack London 5 March 1943 WB Broadcast by the BBC
Second Thoughts on James Burnham May 1946 CEJL IV, ColE, CW XVIII, EL, OR, SaE Essay published in Polemic, and later the same year reprinted as a separate pamphlet by the Socialist Book Club as James Burnham and the Managerial Revolution
James Joyce by Harry Levin 2 March 1944 EL Book review published in Manchester Evening News
John Galsworthy 23 March 1929 Published in French in Monde
“Joint Control of Reich in Danger” 27 May 1945 OY Published in The Observer
“The Lessons of War” February 1940 Published in Horizon
Joseph Conrad April 1949 CEJL IV Unpublished and unfinished essay written c. April 1949
“Just Junk – But Who Could Resist It?” 5 January 1946 EL, OE Published as a Saturday Essay in Evening Standard
Keep the Aspidistra Flying 20 April 1936 CN, CW IV, OR (excerpts) Published by Victor Gollancz, Ltd in London on 20 April 1936.
Kitchener 21 July 1916 CW X Poem published in the The Henley and South Oxfordshire Standard Vol. XXVI, No. 1549, p. 3, signed “E. A. Blair”[12]
Lady Gregory‘s Journals, edited by Lennox Robinson 19 April 1947 EL Book review published in The New Yorker
Lady Windermere’s Fan 21 November 1943 WB Commentary on Oscar Wilde‘s play broadcast by the BBC
Landfall: A Channel Story by Nevil Shute and Nailcruncher by Albert Cohen, translated by Vyvyan Holland 7 December 1940 CEJL II Book review published in New Statesman and Nation
Lear, Tolstoy and the Fool 7 March 1947 SaE, OR, SE, ColE, CEJL IV, EL, AAIP, STCM Published in Polemic
“The Lesser Evil” 1924 Poem
“The Lessons of War” February 1940 Published in Horizon
“Letter from England to Partisan Review March 1943 CEJL II Published in Partisan Review, March/April 1943
“Letter to an Indian” 19 March 1943 Published in Tribune
Letter to the editor 14 May 1938 CW XI, OS Published in The Times Literary Supplement[49]
“Ends and Means” 26 May 1938 CEJL I, CW XI, OP Letter to the editor published in The New English Weekly[50]
Letter to the editor 28 May 1938 CW XI, OS Published in The Times Literary Supplement[49]
“Espionage Trial in Spain: ‘Pressure from Outside'” 5 August 1938 CW XI, OS Letter to the editor published in The Manchester Guardian[51]
Letter to the editor 22 June 1940 CEJL II, EL Published in Time and Tide
Letter to the editor 12 October 1942 CEJL II Unpublished letter addressed to The Times
Letter to the editor 26 June 1945 CEJL III Unpublished letter addressed to Tribune
Letter to the editor 25 February 1946 CEJL IV An open letter about the Nuremberg Trials signed by several author published in Forward
Letter to the editor June 1946 CEJL IV Konni Zilliacus wrote an open letter in response to Orwell’s “London Letter” 15, and Orwell wrote a response, both of which were published in this issue of Tribune, Summer 1946
“Liberal Intervention Aids Labour” 1 July 1945 OY Published in The Observer
“The Limit to Pessimism” 25 April 1940 CEJL I Published in New English Weekly
“The Lion and the Unicorn: Socialism and the English Genius” 19 January 1941 CEJL II, EL, OE, OR, WIW Published by Secker and Warburg as Searchlight Books No. 1
“Literature and the Left” 4 June 1943 CEJL II, EL Published in Tribune
“Literature and Totalitarianism” 21 May 1941 CEJL II, EL Initially broadcast over BBC Overseas Service, printed in The Listener on 19 June 1941
“A Little Poem” 1935 Poem
The Lively Lady by Kenneth Roberts, War Paint by F. V. Morley, Long Shadows by Lady Sanderson, Who Goes Home? by Richard Curle, and Gaudy Night by Dorothy Sayers 23 January 1936 CEJL I Book review published in New English Weekly
London Letters” #1 March 1941 CEJL II, OP (excerpt) The first of several pieces of correspondence published in Partisan Review, March/April 1941
“London Letters” #2 March 1941 CEJL II Published in Partisan Review, March/April 1941
“London Letters” #3 July 1941 CEJL II, OP (excerpt) Published in Partisan Review, July/August 1941
“London Letters” #4 November 1941 CEJL II Published in Partisan Review, November/December 1941
“London Letters” #5 March 1942 CEJL II Published in Partisan Review, March/April 1942
“London Letters” #6 July 1942 CEJL II Published in Partisan Review, July/August 1942; also known as “The British Crisis”
“London Letters” #7 November 1942 CEJL II Published in Partisan Review, November/December 1942
“London Letters” #8 March 1943 CEJL II, OP Published in Partisan Review, March/April 1943
“London Letters” #9 July 1943 CEJL II Published in Partisan Review, July/August 1943
“London Letters” #10 March 1944 CEJL III Published in Partisan Review, Spring 1944; sent 15 January 1944
“London Letters” #11 June 1944 CEJL III Published in Partisan Review, Summer 1944; sent 17 April 1944
“London Letters” #12 December 1944 CEJL III Published in Partisan Review, Winter 1944; sent 24 July 1944
“London Letters” #13 June 1945 CEJL III Published in Partisan Review, Summer 1945; sent 5 June 1945
“London Letters” #14 September 1945 CEJL III Published in Partisan Review, Fall 1945; sent c. 15 August 1945
“London Letters” #15 June 1946 CEJL IV Published in Partisan Review, Summer 1946; sent early May 1946
“Looking Back on the Spanish War” 1943 SSWtJ, EYE, CoE, ColE, CEJL II, EL, FUF Published in New Road, probably written in 1942
“Looking Before and After” 21 October 1939 CW XI Review of Green Worlds by Maurice G. Hindus and I Haven’t Unpacked by William Holt, published in Time and Tide[52]
“A Lost World” 1 February 1948 OY Published in The Observer
“The Lure of Atrocity” 23 June 1938 CW XI, OS Review of Spain’s Ordeal by Robert Sencourt and Franco’s Rule by anonymous, published in The New English Weekly[53][note 6]
“The Lure of Profundity” 30 December 1937 CW XI Article published in New English Weekly[54]
Macbeth 17 October 1943 WB Commentary on William Shakespeare‘s play broadcast by the BBC
The Machievellians by James Burnham 20 January 1944 EL Book review published in Manchester Evening News
“The Man and the Maid” c. 1916–1918 CW X Play (incomplete), manuscript, 26 ff.[55][56]
“Man from the Sea” 24 June 1945 OY Published in The Observer
“The Man in Kid Gloves” June 1929 Short story that was written before the summer of 1929 and has not survived
Many Are Called by Edward Newhouse 1951 LO This book blurb is considered by Davison to be a spurious attribution to Orwell; no other compendium has included it.
Mark Twain – The Licensed Jester” 26 November 1943 CEJL II Published in Tribune
“Marrakech” 25 December 1939 SSWtJ, CoE, ColE, CEJL I, EL, FUF Published in New Writing, New Series number three
“Marx and Russia” 15 February 1948 EL, OY Published in The Observer
“The Meaning of a Poem” 7 May 1941 CEJL II, EL Initially broadcast over BBC Overseas Service on 14 May 1941, printed in The Listener on 5 June 1941
“The Meaning of Sabotage” 29 January 1942 WB Broadcast by the BBC
“The Millionaire’s Pearl” 9 July 1920 CW X Short story published unsigned in College Days No. 5, pp. 152, 154, 156[30][57][note 3]
Mein Kampf by Adolf Hitler, unabridged translation 21 March 1940 CEJL II, EL, OP Book review published in The New English Weekly
“Men of the Isles” 29 February 1948 OY Published in The Observer
Milton in Striped Trousers” 12 October 1945 Published in Tribune
Milton: Man and Thinker by Denis Saurat 20 August 1944 EL, OY Book review published in The Observer
Mind at the End of its Tether by H. G. Wells 8 November 1945 EL Book review published in Manchester Evening News
“Mis-Observation” 26 October 1940 Published in New Statesman and Nation
“Money and Guns” 20 January 1942 WB, EL Published in Through Eastern Eyes and broadcast by the BBC
“Money and Virtue” 10 November 1944 Published in Tribune
The Moon Under Water 9 February 1946 CEJL III, EL, FUF Published as a Saturday Essay in Evening Standard
“More News from Tartary” 4 September 1937 CW XI Review of Forbidden Journey by Ella K. Maillart translated from the French by Thomas MacGreevy, published in Time and Tide[58]
My Country Right or Left September 1940 CEJL I, EL, FUF, OE Published in Folios of New Writing, number two, Autumn 1940
“Moscow and Madrid” 20 January 1940 CEJL I Review of The Last Days of Madrid by S. Casado, translated by Rupert Croft-Cooke, and Behind the Battle by T. C. Worsley, published in Time and Tide Vol. 21, No. 3, p. 62[59]
“Mr Dickens Sits for His Portrait” 15 May 1949 Published in New York Times Book Review
“Mr Joad’s Point of View” 8 June 1940 Published in Time and Tide
“Mr Simpson and the Supernatural” 4 June 1920 CW X Short story published unsigned in Bubble and Squeak No. 2, pp. 40–42, probably by Orwell[13][60]
“Mr Sludge” 6 June 1948 OY Published in The Observer
“Mrs Puffin and the Missing Matches” c. 1919–1922 CW X Short story, handwritten manuscript, date very uncertain[61]
“Muffled Voice” 10 June 1945 OY Published in The Observer
“My Epitaph by John Flory” 1934 CEJL I A passage edited from Burmese Days
My Life: The Autobiography of Havelock Ellis by Havelock Ellis May 1940 EL Book review published in The Adelphi
“Nationalism” 14 May 1943 Published in Tribune
“New Words” February 1940 CEJL II, EL Unpublished, written in February–April 1940
“New World” 17 September 1944 OY Published in The Observer
“A New Year Message” 5 January 1945 CEJL III Published in Tribune
A Nice Cup of Tea 12 January 1946 CEJL III, EL, FUF Published as a Saturday Essay in Evening Standard
Nicholas Moore vs. George Orwell” January 1942 Published in Partisan Review, January/February 1942
The Nigger of the ‘Narcissus’, Typhoon, The Shadow Line, Within the Tides by Joseph Conrad 24 June 1945 CEJL III, OY Book review published in Observer
Nineteen Eighty-Four 1984 8 June 1949 CN, CW IX, OR (excerpts) Published by Secker and Warburg in London on 8 June 1949.
Nineteen Eighty-Four: The Facsimile of the Extant Manuscript May 1984 Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt in May 1984 (ISBN 0-15-166034-4).
“Note to Whitehall’s Road to Mandalay by Robert Duval” 2 April 1943 Published in Tribune
“No, Not One” October 1941 CEJL II, EL, AAIP Book review of No Such Liberty by Alex Comfort published in The Adelphi
Noblesse Oblige—Another Letter to My Son by Osbert Sitwell 30 November 1944 CEJL III Book review published in Manchester Evening News. James Agate wrote a response to Orwell published on 21 December 1944 and Orwell responded to this (with a piece named “A Controversy: Agate: Orwell” in Collected Essays, Journalism and Letters III) in the same issue.
“Nonsense Poetry: The Lear Omnibus Edited by R. L. Mégroz 21 December 1945 SaE, CEJL IV, EL Published in Tribune
“North and South” 8 March 1937 EYE First published as part one, chapter seven of The Road to Wigan Pier
“Not Counting Niggers” July 1939 CEJL I, CW XI, EL, OP Review of Union Now by Clarence K. Streit published in The Adelphi[62]
“Not Enough Money: A Sketch of George Gissing 2 April 1943 EL, OD Published in Tribune
“Notes on Nationalism” October 1945 EYE, ColE, DotEM, CEJL III, EL Published in Polemic: A Magazine of Philosophy, Psychology & Aesthetics, number one
“Notes on the Spanish Militias” 1938 CEJL I, CW XI, EL, OS Unpublished notes, compiled c. 1938–39[15][note 9]
“Notes on the Way” 30 March 1940 CEJL II, EL, OD Published in two issues of Time and Tide, 30 March and 6 April 1940
“Note to Whitehall’s Road to Mandalay by Robert Duval” 2 April 1943 Published in Tribune
Notes Towards the Definition of Culture by T. S. Eliot 28 November 1948 CEJL IV, EL, OY Book review published in The Observer
“Occupation’s Effect on French Outlook” 4 March 1945 OY Published in The Observer
“Ode to Field Days” 1 April 1920 CW X Poem published unsigned in College Days No. 4, p. 114, probably by Orwell[13][note 2][note 3]
Of Ants and Men by Caryl Parker Haskins 5 May 1946 EL, OY Published in The Observer
“Old George’s Almanac” 28 December 1945 Published in Tribune, signed “Crystal-Gazer Orwell”
“Old Master” 26 March 1944 OY Published in The Observer
“On a Ruined Farm Near the His Master’s Voice Gramophone Factory” April 1934 CEJL I, OE Poem published in The Adelphi, later selected for The Best Poems of 1934 by Thomas Moult
“On Housing” 25 January 1946 Published in Tribune
“On Kipling’s Death” 23 January 1936 CEJL I, EL Published in New English Weekly
“On the Brink” 13 July 1940 Published in New Statesman and Nation
“Orwell on Churchill: A Critic Views a Statesman” 14 May 1949 CEJL IV, CW XX Review of Their Finest Hour by Winston Churchill, published in The New Leader (14 May 1949) p. 10[63]
The Orwell Reader, Fiction, Essays, and Reportage 1956 Published by Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich in New York City
Our Minds Are Married, but We Are Too Young Christmas 1918 CW X Poem given to Jacintha Buddicom[64]
“Our Opportunity” January 1941 Published in Left News
“Our Own Have-Nots” 27 November 1937 CW XI Review of The Problem of the Distressed Areas by Wal Hannington, Grey Children by James Hanley and The Fight for the Charter by Gordon Neil Stewart, published in Time and Tide[65]
“Out of Step” 7 November 1943 OY Published in The Observer
“Outside and Inside Views” 8 June 1939 CW XI Review of The Mysterious Mr Bull by Wyndham Lewis and The School for Dictators by Ignazio Silone, published in The New English Weekly[66]
“Oysters and Brown Stout” 22 November 1944 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
“Pacifism and Progress” 14 February 1946 EL Published as part one of a series (with “What Is Socialism?”, “The Intellectual Revolt”, and “The Christian Reformers”) in Manchester Evening News
“Pacifism and the War” September 1942 CEJL II Correspondence between Orwell, Alex Comfort, D. S. Savage, and George Woodcock, published in Partisan Review, September/October 1942; also known as “A Controversy”
The Pagan Autumn 1918 CW X Poem sent to Jacintha Buddicom[64]
“Pamphlet Literature” 9 January 1943 CEJL II Published in New Statesman and Nation
“Paris Is Not France” 12 September 1943 OY Published in The Observer
“Paris Puts a Gay Face on Her Miseries” 25 February 1945 LO, OY Published in The Observer
“Patriots and Revolutionaries” 3 March 1941 Published in Betrayal of the Left by Victor Gollancz Ltd
“A Peep into the Future” 3 June 1918 CW X Short story published unsigned in The Election Times No. 4, pp. 15–24[12][note 1]
“The People’s Victory” 15 February 1941 Published in New Statesman and Nation
“Perfide Albion” 21 November 1942 Published in New Statesman and Nation
“Personal Notes on Scientifiction” 21 July 1945 EL Published in Leader Magazine
Personal Record by Julien Green 13 April 1940 CEJL II Book review published in Time and Tide
“The Photographer” 9 July 1920 CW X Poem published unsigned in College Days No. 5, p. 130[30][69][note 3]
“The Petition Crown” June 1929 Short story that was written before the summer of 1929 and has not survived
“Pity and Terror” 7 October 1945 OY Published in The Observer
Pleasure Spots 11 January 1946 CEJL IV, EL Poem written during his stay in Burma, 1922–1927. Published in Tribune
“Poet and Priest” 12 November 1944 OY Published in The Observer
“Poet in Darkness” 31 December 1944 OY Published in The Observer
Poetry and the Microphone March 1945 CEJL II, ColE, EL, EYE, OE, SSWtJ Published in The New Saxon Pamphlet number three, probably written in the summer of 1943
“Points of View” December 1944 Published in Poetry
“Political Reflections on the Crisis” December 1938 CW XI, EL, OP Article published in The Adelphi[70]
Politics and the English Language 11 December 1945 AAIP, CEJL IV, CoE, ColE, EL, OR, SaE, SE, WIW Published independently as a Payments Book, later printed in Horizon, April 1946
The Politics of Starvation 18 January 1946 CEJL IV, EL Published in Tribune
Politics vs. Literature: An Examination of Gulliver’s Travels September 1946 SaE, OR, SE, ColE, CEJL IV, EL, AAIP, STCM Published in Polemic, September/October 1946
Portrait of the Anti-Semite by Jean-Paul Sartre 7 November 1948 CEJL IV, EL, OY Book review published in The Observer
“Portrait of the General” 2 August 1942 OY Published in The Observer
“Poverty – Plain and Coloured” 1931 Published in The Adelphi
“Power House” 23 April 1944 OY Published in The Observer
“Preface to the Ukrainian edition of Animal Farm March 1947 CEJL III, EL Published in Polemic, January 1946, reprinted in The Atlantic Monthly, March 1947
“The Prevention of Literature” January 1946 SaE, OR, SE, ColE, CEJL IV, EL, AAIP Published in Polemic, January 1946, reprinted in The Atlantic Monthly, March 1947
“Prime Minister” 4 July 1948 OY Published in The Observer
“A Prize for Ezra Pound May 1949 CEJL IV, EL Published in Partisan Review, also entitled “The Question of the Pound Award”
“Problem Picture” 7 November 1948 OY Published in The Observer
“The Proletarian Writer” 6 December 1940 CEJL II, OD A discussion with Desmond Hawkins, initially broadcast over BBC Home Service, printed in The Listener on 19 December 1940
“Propaganda and Demotic Speech” June 1944 CEJL III, EL, AAIP Published in Persuasion volume two, number two, Summer 1944
“Propagandist Critics” 31 December 1936 CEJL I, CW X, EL Review of The Novel To-Day by Philip Henderson, published in The New English Weekly Vol. X, No. 12, pp. 229–230[71][72]
“Prophecies of Fascism” 12 June 1940 CEJL II Published in Tribune
The Prussian Officer and Other Stories by D. H. Lawrence 16 November 1945 CEJL IV, EL Book review published in Tribune
The Pub and the People by Mass Observation 21 January 1943 CEJL III Book review published in The Listener
“Public Schoolboys” 14 September 1940 Published in Time and Tide
“Puritan Poet” 20 August 1944 OY Published in The Observer
“A Questionable Shape” 18 July 1948 OY Published in The Observer
“Questionnaire: The Cost of Letters” September 1946 Published in Horizon
Raffles and Miss Blandish” 28 August 1944 AAIP, CEJL III, CoE, ColE, CrE, DotEM, EL, OD Published in Horizon, October 1944 and politics, November 1944
“The Re-Discovery of Europe” 10 March 1942 CEJL II, EL Broadcast as the first instalment of “Literature Between Wars” by BBC Eastern Service, published in The Listener on 19 March 1942
“Real Adventure” 18 July 1936 CW X Review of Tempest Over Mexico by Rosa E. King and Rolling Stonemason by Fred Bower, published in Time and Tide
“Recent Novels” 23 July 1936 CEJL I, CW X, EL Review of The Rock Pool by Cyril Connolly, Almayer’s Folly by Joseph Conrad, The Wallet of Kai Lung by Ernest Bramah, Anna of the Five Towns by Arnold Bennett, Mr Fortune, Please by H. C. Bailey and The Rocklitz by George R. Preedy, published in The New English Weekly
“Red, White, and Brown” 4 July 1940 Published in Time and Tide
“Reflections on Gandhi January 1949 SaE, CoE, OR, CEJL IV, EL, AAIP Published in Partisan Review
The Reilly Plan by Lawrence Wolfe 25 January 1946 CEJL IV Book review published in Tribune
“Reply to Horizon Questionnaire” 1947 Published in the book British Thought, published by Gresham Press in New York, 1947
“Return Journey” 9 July 1944 OY Published in The Observer
“Revenge Is Sour” 9 November 1945 CEJL IV, EL, FUF Published in Tribune
“Review of ‘Homage to Catalonia'” 16 June 1938 CW XI, OS Letter to the editor published in The Listener[73]
Review of Alexander Pope by Edith Sitwell and The Course of English Classicism by Sherard Vines June 1930 CEJL I, CW X Untitled book review published in The New Adelphi, Vol. III, No. 4 (June–August 1930), pp. 338–340, signed “E. A. Blair”[45]
“Revolt in the Urban Desert” 10 October 1943 OY Published in The Observer
Riding Down from Bangor 22 November 1946 SaE, CEJL IV, EL Published in Tribune
“The Right to Free Expression” 1946 Written by Randall Swingler with commentary from Orwell, published in Polemic, September/October 1946
A Roadman’s Day 15 March 1941 CW XXIII, OD Published in Picture Post
The Road to Serfdom by Friedrich Hayek and The Mirror of the Past by Konni Zilliacus 9 April 1943 CEJL III, OY Book review published in Observer
The Road to Wigan Pier 8 March 1937 CW V, OD, OR (excerpts) Published by Victor Gollancz, Ltd in London on 8 March 1937[74]
“The Road to Wigan Pier Diary” 31 January 1936 CEJL I Excerpts of Orwell’s diary
“Romance” 1925 Poem
“The Romantic Case” 23 July 1941 OY Published in The Observer
Rudyard Kipling February 1942 AAIP, CEJL II, CoE, CrE, DotEM, EL, OD, OR Published in Horizon
“The Ruling Class” December 1940 Published in Horizon, later incorporated into “The Lion and the Unicorn”
“Russian Regime” 12 January 1939 CEJL I, CW XI, EL, OP Review of Russia Under Soviet Rule by Nicolas de Basily published in The New English Weekly[75]
Ruth Pitter‘s Poetry” February 1940 Published in The Adelphi
“The Sanctified Sinner” 17 July 1948 Published in The New Yorker
“Satirical Bullseyes” 7 September 1945 Published in Tribune
“The Sea God” June 1929 Short story that was written before the summer of 1929 and has not survived
Selected Essays 1957 Published by Penguin Group in London
“The Slack-bob” 3 June 1918 CW X Short story published unsigned in The Election Times No. 4, pp. 29–32. Revised and reprinted in College Days No. 5 (9 July 1920) p. 146, also unsigned.[12][note 1][note 3]
Shooting an Elephant September 1936 CEJL I, CoE, ColE, EL, FUF, OP, OR, SaE, SE, STCM Published in New Writing, number two, Autumn 1936, broadcast on the BBC Home Service 12 October 1948
Shooting an Elephant and Other Essays 5 October 1950 Published by Secker and Warburg in London
“Singing Men” 26 November 1944 OY Published in The Observer
A Slip Under the Microscope by H. G. Wells 9 September 1943 WB Adaptation of Wells’ short story as a radio drama by Orwell, broadcast by the BBC
“A Smoking Room Story” April 1949 CEJL IV Unfinished story from his notebook
“So Runs the World” 22 July 1945 OY Published in The Observer
“Socialists Answer Our Questions on the War” November 1941 Published in Left News
“Some Recent Novels” 14 November 1935 CEJL I, CW X, EL Review of Tropic of Cancer by Henry Miller and The Wolf at the Door by Robert Francis, translated by Fraçoise Delisle, published in The New English Weekly
Some Thoughts on the Common Toad 12 April 1946 SaE, OR, CEJL IV, EL, FUF Published in Tribune
“Sometimes in the Middle Autumn Days” March 1933 Poem published in The Adelphi, signed “Eric Blair”
“Songs We Used to Sing” 19 January 1946 EL Published as a Saturday Essay in Evening Standard
The Soul of Man Under Socialism by Oscar Wilde 9 May 1948 CEJL IV, EL, OY Book review published in The Observer
“Spain: Today and Yesterday” 9 October 1937 CEJL I, CW XI, OS Review of Red Spanish Notebook by Mary Low and Juan Brea, Heroes of the Alcazar by Rodolphe Timmermans and Spanish Circus by Martin Armstrong, published in Time and Tide[76]
“Spaniard in Spain” 28 June 1941 Published in Time and Tide
“Spanish Nightmare” 31 July 1937 CEJL I, CW XI, OS Review of The Spanish Cockpit by Franz Borkenau and Volunteer in Spain by John Sommerfield, published in Time and Tide[77]
“Spanish Prison” 24 December 1944 OY Published in The Observer
“Spanish Quintet” 11 December 1937 CEJL I, CW XI, OS Review of Storm Over Spain by Mairin Mitchell, Spanish Rehearsal by Arnold Lunn, Catalonia Infelix by Edgar Allison Peers, Wars of Ideas in Spain by José Castilejo and Invertebrate Spain by José Ortega y Gasset, published in Time and Tide[78]
“Spanish Tragedy” 16 July 1938 CW XI Review of Searchlight on Spain by the Duchess of Atholl, The Civil War in Spain by Frank Jellinek and Spain’s Ordeal by Robert Sencourt, published in Time and Tide[79][note 6]
“The Spanish War” December 1939 Published in The Adelphi
Spearhead: Ten Years’ Experimental Writing in America edited by James Laughlin 17 April 1948 EL Book review published in The Times Literary Supplement
The Spike April 1931 CEJL I, EL, FUF Published in The Adelphi, signed “Eric Blair”; revised as chapters 27 and 35 of Down and Out in Paris and London
Spilling the Spanish Beans 29 July 1937 CEJL I, CW XI, EL, OS Article published in two issues of New English Weekly, 29 July and 2 September 1937[80]
The Spirit of Catholicism by Karl Adam, translated by Dom Justin 9 June 1932 CEJL I Book review published in The New English Weekly
“The Sporting Spirit” 14 December 1945 CEJL IV, EL, FUF, OD, SaE, Published in Tribune
“Stalinism and Aristocracy” 21 July 1938 CEJL I, CW XI Review of Searchlight on Spain by the Duchess of Atholl, published New English Weekly[81][note 6]
Stendhal by F. C. Green July 1939 CEJL I, CWXI Book review published in The Adelphi[82]
“Story by Five Authors” 9 October 1942 WB Short story written by five authors for broadcast over the BBC; Orwell’s piece is first, followed by L. A. G. Strong (16 October), Inez Holden (23 October), Martin Armstrong (30 October) and E. M. Forster (6 November).
The Story of Burma by F. Tennyson Jesse 24 February 1946 CEJL IV, OY Book review published in Observer
Subject India by H. N. Brailsford 20 November 1943 EL Book review published in The Nation and Atheneum
Such, Such Were the Joys 1947 CEJL IV, CoE, EL, FUF, OE, OR, SSWtJ It is speculated that this piece was completed in 1947, but possible dates range from 1939 through June 1948. Unpublished until 1952, this essay was not printed in the United Kingdom until 1968.
Such, Such Were the Joys 1953 Published by Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich in New York City in 1953
Suggested by a Tooth Paste Advertisement c. 1922–1927 CW X Verse that may have been written when Orwell was in Burma between 1922 and 1927. Only a typewritten version survives, 1f.[83][note 7]
“A Summer Idyll” 1 April 1920 CW X Short story published unsigned in College Days No. 4, pp. 116, 118, possibly by Orwell[13][84][note 2][note 3]
“Summer-like for an Instant” 1933 Poem
“Survey of ‘Civvy Street'” 4 June 1944 OE, OY Published in The Observer
The Sword and the Sickle by Mulk Raj Anand July 1942 CEJL II, EL Book review published in Horizon
“A Symposium… Upon Professor John Macmurray‘s The Clue to History February 1939 CW XI, EL Review of The Clue of History by John Macmurray, published in The Adelphi[85]
“Tale of a Head” 19 August 1945 OY Published in The Observer
“The Taming of Power” January 1939 CEJL I, CW XI, EL Review of Power: A New Social Analysis by Bertrand Russell, published in The Adelphi[86]
“‘Trotskyist’ Publications” 5 February 1938 CEJL I, CW XI, OS Letter to the editor published in Time and Tide[87]
T. S. Eliot October 1942 EL, AAIP Published in Poetry London, October/November 1942
Talking to India, by E. M. Forster, Richie Calder, Cedric Dover, Hsiao Ch’ien and Others: A Selection of English Language Broadcasts to India 1943 Published by Allen & Unwin, edited with an introduction by Orwell
“Tapping the Wheels” 16 January 1944 OY Published in The Observer
“Teller of Tales” 18 November 1945 OY Published in The Observer
“Temperature Chart” 25 June 1944 OY Published in The Observer
The Tempest by William Shakespeare and The Peaceful Inn by Denis Ogden, Duke of York’s 8 June 1940 AAIP Drama review published in Time and Tide
“Terror in Spain” 5 February 1938 CEJL I, CW XI, OS Review of The Tree of Gernika by G. L. Steer and Spanish Testament by Arthur Koestler, published in Time and Tide[88]
“Theatre” May 1940 Published in Time and Tide from May 1940 to August 1941.
“Then up Waddled Wog” c. 1919 CW X Verse[89]
“Things We Do Not Want to Know” 29 November 1919 CW X Published unsigned in College Days No. 3, p. 78, attributed to Orwell with considerable uncertainty[13][90][note 3]
The Thirties by Malcolm Muggeridge 25 April 1940 EL Published in New English Weekly
Thomas Hardy Looks at War” 18 September 1942 Published in Tribune
“Three Years of Home Guard” 9 May 1943 OY Published in The Observer
“Through a Glass, Rosily” 23 November 1945 CEJL IV Published in Tribune
“To A. R. H. B.” 27 June 1919 CW X Poem published unsigned in College Days No. 2, p. 42, written by Denys King-Farlow, Orwell attributed as co-author with considerable uncertainty[13][91][note 3]
Tobias Smollett: Scotland’s Best Novelist” 22 September 1944 CEJL III, EL Published in Tribune
Tolstoy and Shakespeare 7 May 1941 CEJL II, EL Initially broadcast over BBC Overseas Service on 7 May 1941, printed in The Listener on 5 June 1941
Tolstoy: His Life and Work by Derrick Leon 26 March 1944 EL, OY Book review published in The Observer
The Totalitarian Enemy by Franz Borkenau 4 May 1940 CEJL II Book review published in Time and Tide
“Toward European Unity” July 1947 CEJL IV, EL Book review published in Partisan Review, July/August 1947
“Travel Round and Down” 17 October 1936 CEJL I, CW X Review of Zest of Life by Johann Wöller, translated from the Danish by Claude Napier and I Took Off My Tie by Hugh Massingham, published in Time and Tide
“Treasure and Travel” 11 July 1936 CW X Review of Treasure Trek by James Stead, Sun on Summer Seas by Major S. E. G. Ponder and Don Gypsy by Walter Starkie, published in Time and Tide
Trials in Burma by Maurice Collis 9 March 1938 CEJL I, OP Book review published anonymously in The Listener[21][note 4]
“The True Pattern of H. G. Wells” 14 August 1946 LO Obituary for H. G. Wells published in Manchester Evening News
“Two Franco Apologists” 24 November 1938 CW XI, OS Review of The Church in Spain, 1737–1937 by E. Allison Peers and Crusade in Spain by Eoin O’Duffy, published in The New English Weekly[92]
“Two Glimpses of the Moon” 18 January 1941 Published in New Statesman and Nation
“Uncertain Fate of Displaced Persons” 10 June 1945 OY Published in The Observer
“Unemployment in England” December 1928 Published in French in Progrès Civique, between December 1928 and May 1929
The Unquiet Grave by Palinurus 14 January 1945 CEJL III, EL, OY Book review published in The Observer
“Utmost Edge” 27 February 1944 OY Published in The Observer
“The Vernon Murders” c. 1916–1918 CW X Short story, manuscript, 32 pp.[55][93]
“Vessel of Wrath” 21 May 1944 CW XVI, EL, OY Review of ‘42 to ’44: A Contemporary Memoir Upon Human Behaviour During the Crisis of the World Revolution by H. G. Wells, published in The Observer No. 7982 (21 May 1944), p. 3[94]
Victory or Vested Interest? 15 May 1942 Published by The Labour Book Service, with Orwell’s “Culture and Democracy” (made up of the pieces “Fascism and Democracy” and “Patriots and Revolutionaries”)
Voice #1 11 August 1942 WB The initial issue of Orwell’s poetry magazine with readings by Mulk Raj Anand, John Atkins, William Empson, Vida Hope, and Herbert Read.
Voice #2 8 September 1942 WB Readings by Edmund Blunden, William Empson, Godfrey Kenton, and Herbert Read.
Voice #3 6 October 1942 WB Readings by Mulk Raj Anand, William Empson, Herbert Read, and Stephen Spender.
Voice #4 3 November 1942 WB Readings by Venu Chitale, John Atkins, Vida Hope, Edmund Blunden, Godfrey Kenton, Mulk Raj Anand, William Empson, Una Marson, Herbert Read, and Stephen Spender.
Voice #5 December 1942 This issue has not been recovered.
Voice #6 29 December 1942 WB Readings by Venu Chitale, William Empson, and Herbert Read.
W. B. Yeats January 1943 CrE, ColE, CEJL II Published in Horizon
“Wall Game” 29 November 1919 CW X Poem published unsigned in College Days No. 3, p. 78, probably by Orwell[13][95][note 3]
Walls Have Mouths by W. F. R. Macartney, with Prologue, Epilogue and Comments on the Chapters by Compton Mackenzie November 1936 EL, OE Book review published in The Adelphi
“Wandering Star” 19 December 1943 OY Published in The Observer
“War Commentary” #1 20 December 1941 WC News reporting read by Indian correspondents, written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #2 3 January 1942 WC News reporting read by Indian correspondents, written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #3 10 January 1942 WC News reporting read by Indian correspondents, written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #4 17 January 1942 WC News reporting read by Indian correspondents, written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #5 24 January 1942 WC News reporting read by Indian correspondents, written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #6 31 January 1942 WC News reporting read by Indian correspondents, written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #7 7 February 1942 WC News reporting read by Indian correspondents, written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #8 14 February 1942 WC News reporting read by Indian correspondents, written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #9 21 February 1942 WC News reporting read by Indian correspondents, written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #10 28 February 1942 WC News reporting read by Indian correspondents, written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #11 14 March 1942 WC News reporting read by Indian correspondents, written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #12 21 March 1942 WC News reporting read by Indian correspondents, written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #13 28 March 1942 WC News reporting read by Indian correspondents, written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #14 4 April 1942 WC News reporting read by Indian correspondents, written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #15 18 April 1942 WC News reporting read by Indian correspondents, written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #16 25 April 1942 WC News reporting read by Indian correspondents, written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #17 2 May 1942 WC News reporting read by Indian correspondents, written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #18 9 May 1942 WC News reporting read by Indian correspondents, written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #19 16 May 1942 WC News reporting read by Indian correspondents, written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #20 23 May 1942 WC News reporting read by Indian correspondents, written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #21 6 June 1942 WC News reporting read by Indian correspondents, written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #22 13 June 1942 WC News reporting read by Indian correspondents, written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #23 11 July 1942 WC News reporting read by Indian correspondents, written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #24 18 July 1942 WC News reporting read by Indian correspondents, written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #25 25 July 1942 WC News reporting read by Indian correspondents, written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #26 1 August 1942 WC News reporting read by Indian correspondents, written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #27 8 August 1942 WC News reporting read by Indian correspondents, written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #28 15 August 1942 WC News reporting read by Indian correspondents, written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #29 22 August 1942 WC News reporting read by Indian correspondents, written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #30 29 August 1942 WC News reporting read by Indian correspondents, written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #31 5 September 1942 WC News reporting read by Indian correspondents, written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #32 12 September 1942 WC News reporting read by Indian correspondents, written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #33 19 September 1942 WC News reporting read by Indian correspondents, written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #34 26 September 1942 WC News reporting read by Indian correspondents, written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #35 3 October 1942 WC News reporting read by Indian correspondents, written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #36 10 October 1942 WC News reporting read by Indian correspondents, written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #37 17 October 1942 WC News reporting read by Indian correspondents, written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #38 24 October 1942 WC News reporting read by Indian correspondents, written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #39 31 October 1942 WC News reporting read by Indian correspondents, written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #40 7 November 1942 WC News reporting read by Indian correspondents, written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #41 28 November 1942 WC News reporting read and written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #42 12 December 1942 WC News reporting read and written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #43 17 December 1942 WC News reporting read and written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #44 26 December 1942 WC News reporting read and written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #45 9 January 1943 WC News reporting read and written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #46 16 January 1943 WC News reporting read and written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #47 20 February 1943 WC News reporting read and written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #48 27 February 1943 WC News reporting read and written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War Commentary” #49 13 March 1943 WC News reporting read and written by Orwell and broadcast by the BBC Eastern Service
“War in Burma” 14 August 1943 Published in New Statesman and Nation
“War-Time Diary” A 28 May 1940 CEJL II Excerpts of Orwell’s diary, 28 May 1940 – 28 August 1941
“War-Time Diary” B 14 March 1942 CEJL II Excerpts of Orwell’s diary, 14 March – 15 November 1942
“War-Time Diary” C 1939 FUF Excerpts of Orwell’s diary, 1939–1942
Wavell on Hilicon” 12 March 1944 OY Published in The Observer
“The Way of a Poet” 17 April 1943 Published in Time and Tide
“We Are Observed!” 2 March 1940 Published in Time and Tide
Wells, Hitler and The World State August 1941 CrE, ColE, CEJL II, EL, AAIP Published in Horizon
“What Is Science?” 26 October 1945 CEJL IV, EL Published in Tribune
“What Is Socialism” 31 January 1946 EL Published as part one of a series (with “The Intellectual Revolt”, “The Christian Reformers”, and “Pacifism and Progress”) in Manchester Evening News
“Where to Go – But How?” 15 August 1943 OY Published in The Observer
“The White Man’s Burden” 29 November 1919 CW X Short story published unsigned in College Days No. 3, pp. 93–95; probably by Orwell; illustrations probably by Bobbie Longden[13][96][note 3]
“Who Are the War Criminals?” 22 October 1943 CEJL II Published in Tribune
“Why I Join the I.L.P. 24 June 1938 CEJL I,[note 10] CW XI, EL, OP Article published in The New Leader[97]
Why I Write June 1946 SSWtJ, EYE, CoE, OR, ColE, DotEM, CEJL I, EL, FUF, WIW Published in Gangrel, number four, Summer 1946
Wilde‘s Utopia” 9 May 1948 OY Published in The Observer
“Will Freedom Die with Capitalism?” April 1941 Published in Left News
“Will Gypsies Survive?” December 1938 CW XI, EL, OD Review of Gypsies by Martin Block translated by Barbara Kuczynski and Duncan Taylor, published in The Adelphi[98]
“Wishful Thinking and the Light Novel” 19 September 1940 Published in New Statesman and Nation
“Words and Henry Miller 22 February 1946 EL Published in Tribune
“World Affairs, 1945” 1945 Published in Junior
“The Wounded Cricketer (Not by Walt Whitman)” 3 June 1918 CW X Poem published unsigned in The Election Times No. 4, p. 61. Reprinted in College Days No. 5 (9 July 1920) p. 136, also unsigned.[13][note 1][note 3]
“The Writer’s Dilemma” 22 August 1948 OY Published in The Observer
“Writers and Leviathan” June 1948 SSWtJ, EYE, CEJL IV, EL, AAIP Published in Politics and Letters, Summer 1948
“You and the Atom Bomb” 19 October 1945 CEJL IV, EL Published in Tribune
Your Questions Answered 2 December 1943 CEJL I, OE This BBC Radio series featured public figures answering questions from listeners; Orwell answered “How long is the Wigan Pier and what is the Wigan Pier?”
“The Youthful Mariner (Extract)” 9 July 1920 CW X Poem published unsigned in College Days No. 5, pp. 156, 158; “(Extract)” is part of the original title. The last two stanzas possibly first printed as part of The Election Times No. 4[30][99][note 1][note 3]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_Schmitt

http://anewdomain.net/2015/07/17/uber-is-fascist-literally-ted-rall-analysis/

Orwell On Totalitarianism

And I believe that totalitarianism, if not fought against, could triumph again.
-George Orwell

Mankind and the individuals that comprise it, conscious of it or not, are in a constant pursuit of something: happiness, perfection, wealth, or popularity. Yet there is something, a more worthy, substantial pursuit that is common amongst many others: the relentless pursuit of what he believes to be a certain TRUTH that exists. Perhaps one of the most dedicated of these people in his attempts to seek out and expose the truth is writer Eric Arthur Blair, (Nom de plume: George Orwell) particularly in his novel 1984. In order to understand Orwell’s political opinions, platforms and his desire to unveil the truth about certain governments, we must analyse his
past: his experience in Burma, Spain, and England. It was through these experiences that involved propaganda and totalitarian regimes that Orwell came to develop his views on sovereignties which he later compiled in his satirical novel 1984. Though this allegorical story has an interesting “surface” tale, it must be analysed on a deeper level in order to fully understand the author’s
purpose. It is through a more intense investigation of the novel that the reader comes to recognize 1984’s verisimilitude. It has
become apparent that 1984 is not an anachronistic representation of a past totalitarian society; it has becomes a timeless book
whose characters, lessons, and themes can be seen in the year 1996.

Orwell was born in India in 1903, his father working for the Civil Service at a time when England’s imperialism was peaking. At the
age of fourteen Orwell entered Eton School in England. It was at Eton that Orwell first became exposed to totalitarian leadership
under the watchful eyes of his schoolmasters who “used kicks and caresses to keep the boys in line.” Once graduated from Eton, Orwell decided to work for the British Government in Burma as a member of the Imperial Police. There Orwell was exposed to many executions and other developments that resulted under imperial rule. It was at this points that Orwell “had already made up his mind that imperialism was an evil thing.” Therefore Burma was seen as a point of change for Orwell: in Burma Orwell established a hatred for the superimposition of the British Government upon the Burmese. Yet while this developed Orwell’s opinion of such governments, his experience in Burma was only the beginning of what would come to be an extensive political resumé of experience.

Following his work in Burma, Orwell felt “obligated to expose the truth,” as he had fully come to recognize that “totalitarianism was a basic evil.” His further experience strengthened his opinions. After returning from Burma, Orwell wasted away as a poor beggar for several years and then went to Spain to fight in the Spanish Civil War. In part, it is believed that this was done because Orwell felt indebted to the world for his actions in Burma. To “equal” himself with others, he felt it necessary to “reduce” himself on a social level. Moreover, Orwell wished for an experience where he was considered to be a commoner, since the class system in England was far too restrictive for this to happen. Orwell himself said: “the class system- it hit you like a stone wall.” In Spain Orwell fought with the Republicans and there recognized that it was “impossible to fight for any side without recognizing it as an unjustifiable tyranny.” While Orwell had originally thought that Spain would be a rejuvenating experience, he quickly came to learn that even the side he was fighting for was in arms with itself. That is, the Americans, British, and Communists fighting Fascism were themselves in dispute. It was as a result of Orwell’s dissatisfaction in this incident that he almost came to be slain by a group of Communists. In Spain Orwell suffered injuries and later returned to England where he worked for the BBC. Concurrently the Second World War was under way, and Orwell familiarised himself with the Russian situation. Having just felt the frustration of the Spanish War, Orwell was once again outraged that the Russians as a people and the rest of the World were not truly recognising Stalin’s oppressive ruling. He took the stage and pointed out the truth. The fact was that little was known about Russian life behind the iron curtain: information was limited to government agency reports that only published the good news while inside sources mysteriously contradicted one another. It was as a result of these experiences that Orwell came to develop his views as expressed in the novel 1984 and Animal Farm.

Through his political experience, Orwell was not only inspired to write, but he made his goal in writing to reveal the faults of a totalitarian system:

“Every line of serious work that I have written since 1936 has been written, directly or indirectly, against totalitarianism and for socialism, as I understand it.”

And so, the world was given 1984 and Animal Farm where Orwell criticized the totalitarian governments of the world for their platforms. Collectively, his works came to reject the governments which sought a utopia that Orwell had, at an early age, recognised to be impossible to achieve. It was through his writing that this ultimate prophesy was established.

Orwell matured as an experienced man whose young and adult exposure had opened his eyes to multitude of political clashes. It was through these trials in Burma, Russia, and Spain that Orwell began to develop a disapproval for totalitarian ruling forces and an admiration for socialism. Moreover, through leaders such as Russia’s Stalin, identified as “the greatest,” Orwell found many flaws. Consequently Orwell set on a mission to expose the truth to the world; to save it’s countries from futile attempts to create utopian states far too idealistic to be reality. In his life and work, Orwell was truly dedicated to being a beacon of light in the totalitarian night!

Rudy Sedlak
14 December, 1996

src: http://www.theorwellreader.com/essays/sedlak.html